FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT
There are man-made and natural barriers acting as constraints to development such as water, topography, soil conditions, and regulatory controls. In many situations it is possible to overcome these barriers through costly development methods. However, the purpose of analyzing soils and identifying areas according to their development limitations is not intended to restrict development but rather to act as warning signals of potential problems that may be costly to overcome. Following are descriptions of some man made and natural development limitations considered:
The most extensive glacial-lake deposits in the Lower
Chippewa basin consist of interlayered silts and clays in the Chippewa
and Red Cedar Valleys that were deposited when the margins of a glacier
Glacial outwash is present in the Red Cedar Valley.
Most of the bedrock geology found outcropping in the
Town of Spring Brook consists of Cambrian-age (approximately 520 million
years old) sandstone. Many outcrops
around the Town exhibit the sandstone that makes up the majority of
the Township. The Trempealeau Group, consisting of the Jordan
Myers, and W.S.
Survey Regional Map Series (Map 87-11).
Bedrock Geology of
Geological and Natural History Survey Regional Map series.
Depth to Bedrock of Dunn
Soils in the town have been mapped, analyzed and categorized as to their development suitability. Soil characteristics within the first few feet of the surface play an important role in the amount and quality of water entering the groundwater. Specific development limitation information can help decision makers determine the suitability of specific areas for particular types of development. Some limitations can be overcome, or their effects minimized if proper measures are taken. The Town should encourage development where public services can be maximized and where the limiting factors can be avoided. In areas with severe limitations, questions regarding the economic and environmental feasibility of such development should be posed. It is also important to note that the following information is generalized for planning purposes and that these materials do not replace the need for site-specific evaluation.
Soils place limitations on the construction and function of septic systems. The entire town has some soil conditions unsuited to septic development due to predominance of soils that are well or excessively drained, steep topography, or soils with shallow depth to groundwater or bedrock. In areas with shallow soils that are excessively drained, concentration of septic systems could threaten groundwater quality. Current septic system regulations only require a minimal soil depth, sufficient water infiltration into soil, and minimal separation between wells and drain fields. These regulations may not fully address the potential impacts of unsewered development in the Township.
Soil limitations affecting basement construction are mostly due to friable soils and shallow depths to bedrock or groundwater. Basements can be built where friable soils exist, but usually result in higher excavation, backfilling and erosion control costs. Basements often cannot be built on shallow bedrock or in areas with a shallow groundwater depth.
The Town of Spring Brook has a number of areas adjacent
to rivers and streams where water fluctuations can cause flooding. To
protect property and public investments, Wisconsin Statutes 87.30(1)
requires counties, cities and villages to implement Floodplain Zoning.
Development in a floodplain is usually determined through the use of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 100-year floodplain maps. While these FEMA flood insurance maps delineate the floodplain, past experience indicates these maps are old and errors have been found. Another method is to map soils that show evidence of flood conditions. For the purpose of this plan the flooded soils have been mapped, and, as is the case with the FEMA maps, errors have been found. Therefore, it is important to note that the following information is generalized for planning purposes and that these materials do not replace the need for site-specific evaluation.
Prime Agricultural Land
This land is necessary for the continuation of the production of food or fiber and was defined strictly by soil productivity. The maps do not reflect whether the land is currently being cropped or has a history of cropping. For planning purposes, soils are considered to be of high or medium production if they meet the criteria as described in the Agricultural section of the plan (see High and Medium productive Soils Appendix E
See Steep Slopes in LAND USE section.
Surface water resources include water that is standing still or flowing,
navigable or intermittent, which collects and channels overland runoff.
Rivers and streams are the primary components that make up surface waters
in the Township and of primary concern is shoreland
protection. Shore lands provide habitat for both aquatic and terrestrial
animals and vegetation. Shore lands act as buffers to protect the water
quality of these resources. However, shore lands are also prime areas
for residential development and are receiving increased exposure to
contamination from residential development and recreation use. The State